GRE词汇 | Day5: 每天5个GRE词汇


potentate 英 [ˈpəʊtnteɪt]  美 [ˈpoʊtnteɪt] n. 统治者,君主;有权势的人

: pot(power)+ent+ate(v/n后缀) -> 引申为有权力的人 -> 君主

■考点: n.有权的人: one who has the power and position to rule over others

e.g. a son of a potentate 官二代

: authority, autocrat, monarch, ruler, sovereign

: figurehead (有名无权的)傀儡

ostracize 英 [ˈɒstrəsaɪz]  美 [ˈɑːstrəsaɪz] vt. 放逐;排斥;按贝壳流放法放逐

: ostrac(瓦片)+ize(v后缀) -> 投瓦片 古希腊的陶片放逐法 -> 指放逐/排斥

■考点: vt.驱逐: to exclude from a group

e.g. He was ostracized from the scientific community for many years because of his radical political beliefs.他因激进的政治理想被驱逐出了科学界很多年。

: banish, bounce, chase, dismiss, expel, extrude, oust, boot out, cast out, run off, drum out, kick out, throw out, turf out

: take in, include, embrace, welcome 接纳

scrap 英 [skræp]  美 [skræp] n. 碎片;残余物;打架;少量 vt. 废弃;使解体;拆毁 adj. 废弃的;零碎的 vi. 吵架

: scrap(scrip-:write ) -> 原始含义 刻, 削,磨 后引申为碎片; 残留物

■考点1: n.废料,废物: discarded or useless material

■e.g. The rest of this stuff is just scrap, so sweep it up and throw it away.剩下的这堆东西都是、没用的,把它们打扫一下就扔了吧。

: chaff, debris, dreck, dross, dust, effluvium, junk, litter, offal, offscouring, raffle, refuse, riffraff, rubbish, waste

■考点2: vt.抛弃: to get rid of as useless or unwanted

■e.g. We’ve decided to scrap the first car.我们决定丢弃第一辆车。

: ditch, dump, jettison, junk, toss, throw away

: retrieve 找回

■考点3: v.终止,放弃原计划: to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to)

e.g. We scrapped our plans to go to Paris, and set out the next day for Prague. 我们取消了去巴黎的计划,第二天启程奔赴布拉格。

: abandon, abort, drop, recall, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off, cry off

: continue, keep 继续,持续

gaffe 英 [ɡæf]  美 [ɡæf] n. 失态;过失

: 原义为钩子 词源同gaff,词源不明,可能来自拟声词, 鸭子的叫声,表示拙劣的讲话 后引申为 失态

■考点1: n.(社交上)失礼,失态: a social or diplomatic blunder

e.g. A gaffe is when a politician tells the truth.——Michael Kinsley所谓出丑,就是政治家说真话的时候(迈克•金斯利)

: impropriety, indecorum, indiscretion

: decency, decorum, propriety 举止得体

■考点2: n.明显的错误,错误判断: a blatant mistake or misjudgment

e.g. so-called debates, which were mainly about seeing which candidate made the most gaffes 所谓的辩论,其实主要就是看哪个选手犯了最多的错误

■同: blunder, lapse, misstep, oversight

needy 英 [ˈniːdi]  美 [ˈniːdi] adj. 贫困的;贫穷的;生活艰苦的

■考点: adj.贫困的: being in need; impoverished, poor

e.g. As a child, she was extremely needy and had no self-confidence.她是一个非常贫穷的小孩,因此缺乏自信

: destitute, impecunious, impoverished, indigent, penurious, poor, threadbare

: affluent, opulent, wealthy 富有的

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